Electromechanical Systems Simulator (ESS) Documentation

ESS Tutorial Docs Turkish


Electromechanical Systems Simulator (ESS) is used to design
and analyse electromechanical control Systems. These systems are highly
used in industry to control processes machines. Also there is a course
which studied at collages, universities and technical schools related
with electromechanical control systems.

Simulator is a program that behaves like a real system giving all
responses of it. This simulator is developed for designing
electromechanical systems, testing them and monitoring their behaviours.

Using Simulator

User interface

Simulator have very simple interface. All buttons located at the top of the program. (Figure 1)

User interface

Figure 1: User interface

The work space is constructed in grid form so that drawing can be
made more easily and smoothly. It contains of two red lines which
represents electrical fuse and neutral fuse. Circuit is drawn between
these lines inform of ladder diagram.

Working with files

There are simple tasks to handle with files like opening a new file, opening an existing file and saving modified file.

To open a new file simply click on New file button located at the tool bar or from menu combination File -> New .

To open an existing file click on Open File button or access open file dialog window from File -> Open menu. On dialog window find file to open and click Open button.

Before opening any file program prompts to save changes made on an existing file if there are such.

To save file click on Save button or click on File -> Save File menu. For saving file with different name click on File -> Save as menu. On opened dialog window write file name you wish to give to file and click Save button.

Design command circuit

Circuit components and their symbols

Normally opened contact
Normally closed contact
Start button
Stop button
Jog button
Limit switch
Time relay (on delay)
Time relay (off delay)

To design a command circuit you need add components and connect them
properly. To add component simply click on component you wish to add
and drag it to its desired position and click again to release
component. Once component added you can easily move it by dragging
pressed on it and releasing in desired position.

To give appropriate name for component click on the label located at
the top of component and type new name on it. All components must be
named for running circuit. Name for open and closed contactors is
selected among contactors and time relays. Therefore contactors and time
relays must be named before. Time relays have their timer located at
the bottom of component. To set timer, click on timer and type new

To change colour of lamp right click on lamp and select new colour.

To draw a connection line between two components move your mouse
pointer to connection point of component. When connection point appears
press left button of mouse on that point and drag your mouse to other
connection point, line or node. When connection point appears release
mouse button. While drawing line it will appear as blue thick line. When
connection made line will be converted to black otherwise it will
remain as blue. Once connection line drawn you can easily move it by
dragging pressed on it and releasing in desired position.

To delete any component or line select it by pressing CTRL key. You can select many components and lines while pressing CRTL
key. Selected components will appear in frame and lines will be
converted to red. When you select component, lines connected to that
component also will be selected. After selecting click on Delete button at tool bar or press delete key on keyboard. To deselect components click on any component without pressing CTRL key.

Motor Circuit Types

There are 9 selected motor circuit types that mostly used in laboratory.

One phase induction motor with manual switch

One phase induction motor with automatic switch

Three phase induction motor

Three phase induction motor with reversing direction circuit.

Star-delta controlled three phase induction motor

Motor circuit with single resistance starter

Motor circuit with double resistance starter

Three phase induction motor with dynamic brake circuit

Working with Motor Circuits

Simulator has some predefined motor circuit types. You can easily add them to your project. To add motor circuit click on Motor Circuit button on tool bar . Also it is possible to access motor circuit from View -> Motor Circuit menu. When motor circuit window opened select motor circuit which you want to add to your project from Motor Options panel . Selected motor circuit will appear on motor circuit window and its title at the top . Select appropriate relays for contactors from combo boxes on motor options panel. Click Ok button to save changes on motor circuit. To cancel them click Cancel button . If Motor Options panel is hidden, use Show/Hide button to make it visible . You can move Motor circuit window by pressing and drugging its outer frame . To hide motor circuit click on Motor Circuit button located on tool bar .

Run Designed Circuit

To run designed circuit click on Run
button located on toolbar. If there is any problem with circuit program
will alert error message. You have to correct errors to run the circuit
properly. While program is in run mode you can control circuit by
pressing on start / stop buttons or directly on relays
using mouse pointer. To leave buttons remaining pressed, right click on
them and click again for releasing. In run mode active lines showed by
pink and active elements by red colour. Rotation of motor can be learned
by green point on motor circuit. To stop project click on Stop button.

Print circuit

To print designed circuit, click on Print button. Print preview dialog
window will appear. There you can adjust paper position and locations
of command and motor circuits on paper. To specify paper position,
select landscape or portrait position from right side menu. To move
command or motor circuit simply drag and drop them on desired position.
Also it is possible to save print outs as image in BMP format.

Electromechanical Systems Simulator Examples

1. Button lock circuit.

This circuit shows how to use relay contact to lock button
position. When “START” button pressed “M” relay activates and motor
starts to rotate. At the same time one contact of relay “M” locks start
button so that current continue to pass through relay “M”. Stop button
is used to cut the energy from relay “M”, which will cut energy from

2. Remote control circuit

This circuit is used to control motor from different locations. All
stop buttons connected serially and start buttons connected parallel to
each other. We can start and stop motor by using any start and stop
buttons from any location.

3. Starter circuit for one phase Asynchronous Motor

This circuit is used to start one phase asynchronous motor. By
pressing start button “A” and “M” relays activated and motor starts to
rotate. At the same time, timer “ZR” activates and starts to count. When
timer finishes counting, relay “A” is cut off energy by the contactor
of time relay and motor continues to rotate without auxiliary winding.

4. Motor Starter circuit with single resistance

When the stator windings of an induction motor are connected
directly to its 3-phase supply, a very large current (5-8 times full
load current) flows initially. This surge current reduces as the motor
accelerates up to its running speed. When very large motors are started
direct-on-line they cause a disturbance of voltage (voltage dip) on the
supply lines due to the large starting current surge. This voltage
disturbance may result in the malfunction of other electrical equipment
connected to the supply. To limit the starting current some large
induction motors are started at reduced voltage and then have the full
supply voltage reconnected when they have run up to near rated speed.

This circuit is used to start high power induction motors. When we
click on start button “M” relay and “ZR” time relay activated.
Contactors of relay “M” connect motor to 3 phase power supply and
auxiliary contact used to keep relay in power. Motor voltage is reduced
by resistances serially connected to motor. Time relay “ZR” starts to
count down. When time relay finishes counting, relay “A” is activated by
contactor of time relay. Contactors of relay “A” bypass resistances
used in motor circuit and motor continues rotating with full supply
voltage. Timer of time relay “ZR” must be arranged to count until motor
gets to rated speed. Button Stop is used to cut power off from motor and
all relays used in command circuit.

5. Motor starter circuit with double resistance

High power motors always need starter circuit for starting to work.
When we click on start button motor starts to work with low voltage
because of usage of two resistances. First timer starts to count to
specified time. When timer finishes counting relay “A” activates which
used to bypass first resistance in motor circuit and starts second
timer. When second timer finishes counting relay “B” activates and both
resistances bypassed in motor circuit.

6. Star- Delta starter circuit

This circuit is used to start motor working using star connection
for some period and then switch to delta connection. This method is used
to start high power motors. When we click on “START” button, “A” relay
is activated and its contact activates relay “M”, which connects motor
to power supply. Other contacts of relay “A” connect motor windings in
star connection. Motor starts rotate using low voltage. Time relay “ZR”
is also activated by “START” button. When time relay finishes counting
its normally closed contact activates and relay “A” is deactivated,
which activates relay “B”. Relay “B” converts motor connection type to
delta. Auxiliary contact of relay “B” deactivates time relay “ZR”. When
we click on “STOP” button all relays deactivated and motor circuit cut
off power supply.

7. Changing rotation direction with protection lock

We have two buttons to rotate motor in separate directions. “ILERI”
button activates Relay “I” which rotates motor in forward direction and
“GERI” button activates relay “G” which rotates motor in backward
direction. At the same time button “ILERI” is used to cut energy from
relay “G”, in case it was activated, before activating relay “I”. This
is preventing from short circuit in motor circuit. Button “GERI” is also
used in the same way. Button “STOP” is used to cut energy from both
relays “I” and “G”, which cuts energy from motor.

8. Changing rotation direction with electric lock

To rotate motor in selected direction press “ILERI” or “GERI”
buttons. While motor is rotating in one direction it is electrically
impossible to rotate it in another direction without stopping it. If you
try to change direction of rotation while it is rotating in one
direction Command circuit will not activate related relay because of
security contact. For example we start rotate motor in forward direction
by pressing “ILERI” button. Relay “I” is activated and motor starts to
rotate. Normally closed contact of relay “I” located before relay “G”
will prevent activation of relay “G”. Therefore we have to stop motor by
clicking “STOP” button and deactivate active relay “I” in case to
rotate motor in reverse direction.

9. Dynamic forced braking

When we cut off energy from motor it doesn’t stop immediately. It
continues rotating while it looses its kinetic energy. To stop motor
immediately dynamic barking circuit is used.

In command circuit when we click on start button relay “M” and
inverse time relay “ZR” is activated. Motor connected to power supply by
contacts of relay “M”. When we click “STOP” button relay “M” and
inverse time relay “ZR” is deactivated. Motor cut off energy. Counter of
inverse time relay starts to count down. Contact of inverse time relay
“ZR” is remaining active while counter counts down. It activates relay
“F” which connects motor to braking circuit. When inverse time relay
finishes counting, its contact became inactive, that deactivates relay
“F”. Motor is cut off braking power supply and remains fully sopped.

10. Optional dynamic braking

This circuit have optional dynamic braking button “FREN”. Start
motor rotation by pressing “START” button. To stop it we have two
choices. First by pressing “FREN” button which will cut main power and
apply braking circuit to motor for short period. Second by pressing
“STOP” button which will just cut power from motor circuit.

11. Continuous and Discontinuous working motor circuit

This circuit explains how control motor for continuous or
discontinuous working. By pressing “START” button we make motor work
continuously. Relay “M” is used to rotate motor and lock start button.
By pressing “KS.CL” button we use relay “M” just for rotating motor.
When we release “KS.CL” button “M” relay energy will be cut off and
motor will stop. “STOP” button is used to stop motor in continuous
working mode.

Program history

8 January 2005

  • Renewed name of the program from “Sequential Control Simulator” to “Electromechanical Systems Simulator”
  • Added future prompting to save changes before opening other file or closing program.
  • Program interface and Help file converted to Turkish language
  • Added tutorial for getting started easily
  • Setup file created
  • Some bugs in motor circuit corrected

June 2002

  • Electromechanical Systems Simulator was developed and presented as
    Graduation Project from Technical Education Faculty at Marmara
    University .
  • Programs first release.


Supervised by

Department of Control Education, Marmara University , Istanbul, Turkiye
E-mail: herdal { at } marmara.edu.tr


Programmed and developed by

Vepa Halliyev
E-mail: vepa_hall { at } yahoo.com


Simulator was published as Graduation project.

Publication date: 2002
Place: Marmara University , Technical Education Faculty, department
of Computer and Control Technologies, Istanbul , Turkiye.

Web: www.marmara.edu.tr


Official site: veppa.com

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